The fate of Manchuria and the island of Sakhalin was still uncertain when the arboretum was established – these territories were under dispute between the imperial powers of Russia and Japan. Modern Manchuria in northeastern China is now separated from Sakhalin not only by the Sea of Japan, but also by the Russian territory above Vladivostok. Although the vegetation of both regions shares many things in common, Manchuria, to the south, is clearly richer in ecotopes. Dahurian larch dominates in the swampy north of Sakhalin. Yeddo spruce dominates the southern mountain ranges. Other species that thrive there are Sakhalin spruce and Sakhalin fir. The lower zones are populated by hardwood species such as Ermann’s Birch and species of maple, including Tartar maple. Specimens of such species can be admired in Group 36A. Dark conifer forests of fir and silver fir are also found in Manchuria, in the Xingang mountains, where Siberian fir, Korean spruce, Nikko fir and Khingan fir thrive. Deciduous forests are found in the lower zones, sometimes mixed with Korean pine. It would be very difficult, indeed, to gather the full range of common tree genera found in Manchuria and Sakhalin: eight species of maple, five species of linden, seven species of birch, and many more. A typical genus from those areas is represented by the Amur corktree.