31 Turkey, Anatolia

Anatolia, also known as Asia Minor, is geographically a massive plateau surrounded by mountain ranges, the Pontic Mountains to the west, the Taurus range to the south and the Caucasus to the east. The plateau has a dry and pronounced continental climate, while the north and south slopes of the bordering ranges are influenced by the Black Sea on the one hand and the Mediterranean on the other. Noteworthy species here include the Cilician fir, the Cedar of Lebanon and the Crimean pine, a subspecies of Black pine. All these species are well represented in Group 31. Caucasian species are also found in the group: the Caucasian fir and the Nordmann fir, the latter often growing together with Oriental beech. The Pontic Mountains are the home of a subspecies of Nordmann fir, the “equi-trojani” and also of a subspecies of our Pedunculate oak, the “pedunculiflora”, which tolerates drier conditions. The distribution area of ​​the Scots pine extends to the Anatolian plateau.