The Altai and Sayan mountain ranges lie in the border region of Kazakhstan, Russia and Mongolia, between the Siberian taiga and the Mongolian steppes. The forests here are of the boreal type and consist of coniferous species, the names of which are not difficult to remember: Siberian fir, Siberian silver fir, Siberian pine, and Siberian larch. The pines and larches can be found at higher altitudes, with an understory of Dwarf birch and rhododendrons. In the low-lying zones, hardwood species such as aspen and the rarer Russian poplar also occur, in addition to Downy birch. In arboretum Group 34 the perennial Siberian spruces are particularly noticeable despite their scrawniness. A younger planting of Siberian silver fir did not thrive, unfortunately. The Siberian silver birches are pioneers of the area.